Officer Historical Foundation
(formerly Warrant Officers Heritage Foundation)
501 (c) (3) Public
Preserving Army Warrant
Officer History ™
Founded May 29, 2003
Warrant Officer Programs
of the Other U. S. Uniformed Services
Reports Pertaining to Warrant Officers of All Services |
Navy | Marine Corps |
Coast Guard | Air Force |
Public Health Service Commissioned Corps |
Other Resources | Other Web Sites |
Reports on Warrant Officers of All Services
DoD Report on WOMA
- The Army was requested by the Defense Department to chair a special ad hoc committee to research and prepare the requested report for the Congress. The committee initiated deliberations on 22 September 1989. Committee participants included representatives from the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Force Management) and from the personnel departments of each of the military services, the Reserve components, and the Coast Guard. The Committee's report was issued on 30 November 1989. The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Force Management & Personnel) forwarded the Defense Report to the Chairmen of the Senate and House Armed Services Committees on 9 March 1990. See the
In February 2002,
"The Warrant Officer Ranks: Adding Flexibility to Military Personnel Management,"
a report released by the Congressional Budget Office of the U.S. Congress in February 2002 (applies to all services) - see
Fact Sheet. To view the CBO Report go to
www.cbo.gov, click on "Publications", then click on "Search" and enter "warrant" in the "word/Phrase" block. The Report will appear right hand panel. Click "More" to view the report or you may download the file.
In March 2002
the Ninth Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation Report
was released on May 17th, 2002. Warrant Officer compensation is covered in the Executive Summary and in the body of the report.
U. S. Air Force
The Air Force discontinued its warrant officer program in 1959
following a comprehensive review of warrant officer utilization as technicians and mid-level managers. They determined that structure, training and retention needs were best served by eliminating their warrant officer program. There were approximately 4,500 Air Force warrant officer authorizations when this decision was made.
While warrant officers provide excellent technical expertise,
the Air Force determined that they are not sufficiently flexible for utilization outside of their technical specialty. Officers provide the flexibility for use in a broad span of managerial and career broadening assignments which are necessary to meet Air Force requirements. Technical administrative duties such as acquisition, logistics and scientific duties were felt to be best performed by officers, while "hands on" technical duties such as data systems operations, radar and avionics maintenance could be best performed by the enlisted force.
Personnel management efficiencies were realized
by eliminating one personnel management system and erasing the overlap of status, responsibility and authority between the enlisted, warrant, and officer ranks. This action additionally created an increase in promotion opportunity for the senior enlisted force.
The last active duty Air Force
warrant officer, CWO-4 James H. Long, retired in 1980 and the
last Air Force Reserve warrant officer, CWO-4 Bob Barrow,
retired in 1992. Upon his retirement, he was honorarily promoted
to CWO-5, the only person in the Air Force ever to hold this
Barrow passed away in April 2008. Since Barrow's retirement, the Air Force warrant officer ranks,
while still authorized by law, are not used.
See also "The In-Betweens"
by Bruce D. Callander, published in November 1991 edition of the
AIR FORCE MAGAZINE
of the Air Force Association.
U.S. Air Force Homepage
Established January 28, 1915,
when President Wilson signed the Act creating the Coast Guard.
Warrant Officer Definition
Coast Guard warrant officers are technical officers
with strong leadership skills who have demonstrated a potential for greater responsibility than normally expected of senior enlisted members. Warrant officers are mature individuals with extensive experience in their specialty who are capable of performing duties in an administrative or technical capacity. They are extended the same privileges as commissioned officers.
Warrant Officer Utilization
Laws governing management of the Coast Guard warrant officer corps
are the same as DoD, Title 10, U. S. Code. Warrant officers in the Coast Guard are considered part of the officer corps. As such, they hold a unique organizational position. Warrant officers "fill the gap" between the enlisted corps and the commissioned officer corps. They are able to fully understand and communicate with the enlisted technician. Through understanding the requirements and problems of the enlisted technician as well as the management requirements of the general line officer, warrant officers bridge an essential communication link between officer and enlisted. This communication, both up and down the chain, significantly contributes to the efficiency and effectiveness of the Service. In recognition of the importance of this link, warrant officers are held in high regard within the Coast Guard.
Although junior in pay grade to commissioned officers,
warrant officers have at least 8 years and currently average about 14 years enlisted service. In addition, enlisted members must have demonstrated leadership abilities. Applicants must be at least an E-6 or above. If an E-6, the member must be on the E-7 list. Therefore, new warrant officers bring strong technical expertise and leadership into the officer corps.
Warrant Officer Occupations
The Coast Guard warrant officer corps is spread over 12 specialties.
Five of the specialties have less than fifty billets. The size of the specialties range from ten to three hundred thirty-four. Some examples of warrant officer billets include:
- Commanding Officers, First Lieutenants, Division and Repair Party Officers. Ashore, boatswains serve as Commanding Officers, Executive Officers, Security officers, and Inspectors in the Marine Safety Program.
- Commanding Officers, Executive Officers of radio stations, Assistants to Communications Officers, and Communication Security.
- Engineer Officer, Assistant to Engineer Officer on larger cutters, Machinery Repair Officers, Technical Advisors on uses, capabilities, limitations, and reliability of engineering equipment, as well as Inspectors in the Marine Safety Program.
- Aircraft Maintenance Officers, Assistant Aircraft Maintenance Officers, Technical Advisors on capabilities, limitations, and reliability of aircraft power plants, accessories, air frames and equipment.
- Assistants to engineer and repair officers, Shop Superintendents, Technical Advisors concerning uses, capabilities, limitations, and reliability of ship repair, fire fighting and damage control equipment, as well as Inspectors in the Marine Safety Program.
- Support for administration, legal, education, housing, and personnel services programs.
- Public Information Officers, Assistant Public Information Officers, or Photographic Officers.
Intelligence Systems Specialist
- collect, process, analyze, and disseminate intelligence in support of Coast Guard operational missions.
On February 25, 2003
- The Coast Guard welcomed Homeland Security Department
Secretary Tom Ridge aboard today as its new chief civilian
during a symbolic transfer of leadership here. The maritime
service has been part of the Department of Transportation. On
March 1, 2003, it and 21 other federal agencies officially merge
into the Department of Homeland Security. While the Coast Guard falls under the Department of Homeland Security, it remains a distinct military entity that is subject to Department of Defense authority in time of war -- just as the existing law states.
In May 2004 - In
ALCOAST 234/04, the Commandant announced completion of the CWO Specialty Review. This message outlines necessary changes to the CWO workforce structure, which will be explained in more detail in a future ALCOAST (process, timelines, etc.).
announced application process for new CG Intelligence Specialty (IS). When fully staffed nearly 400 active duty and reserve enlisted and
warrant officers will be tasked to collect, process, analyze, and disseminate intelligence in support of Coast Guard operational missions. Presently applications to lateral into the new IS specialty are being accepted by the Coast Guard Personnel Command. Lateral panels will convene this summer and those chosen will formally transition to their new rate on January 1, 2008.
U. S. Coast Guard Home page
U. S. Coast Guard Reserve
Guard News Channel
Chief Warrant Officer
Chief Warrant Officer Professional Development - USCG Academy
Chief Warrant Officer Specialty Review
The Foundation for Coast
The Coast Guard Foundation
U. S. Marine Corps
Warrant Officer Definition
The Marine Corps warrant officer is a technical officer specialist who performs duties that require extensive knowledge, training and experience with particular systems or equipment. Their duties and responsibilities are of a nature beyond those required of senior noncommissioned officers. Marine Corps warrant officers provide experience and stability in the officer ranks in critical specialty areas.
Warrant Officer Utilization
The primary purpose for establishing warrant officers
was to create and maintain a selected body of personnel with special knowledge of a particular MOS. Since 1916, the Marine Warrant Officer Program has undergone many changes in its structure, eligibility criteria and policy. As late as World War II, warrant officers were appointed primarily as a reward for the long and faithful service of senior noncommissioned officers. However, today the Marine Corps warrant officer program is requirements-based, designed specifically to meet valid operational requirements.
These billets are located at the highest operational levels
of the Marine Corps. For example, CWO5s are assigned in the operations sections of Marine Air-Ground Task Forces as a principal technical advisor for their particular specialty.
Warrant Officer Occupations
The Marine Corps has two distinct warrant officer programs: the Marine Gunner and the Technical warrant officer programs.
The Technical warrant officer program provides officers for service in technical non-combat arms specialties such as Electronics Maintenance Officers, Tactical Intelligence officers and Disbursing officers.
The Marine Gunner program provides warrant officers who are specialists in all aspects of infantry weapons and who are the source of expertise in the employment of weapons organic to infantry units. In addition, they are responsible for the development, coordination and monitoring of unit training programs for tactical weapons employment.
The following are examples of Marine Corps warrant officer positions:
Data Systems Operations Officer
Tactical Intelligence Officer
Survey and Meteorological Officer
Electro-Optic Instrument Repair Officer
Ground Radar Maintenance officer
Ground Supply Operations Officer
Legal Administrative Officer
Personnel Management & Professional Development
Warrant officer careers are to be carefully managed with a clear progression of billets, from those designated WO/CWO2, to those designated CWO3/CWO4 and CWO5.
All newly selected warrant officers
are required to attend the Warrant Officer Basic Course (WOBC). This course provides all W01 with a common officer training experience regardless of the technical occupational field for which they were selected.
Marine Corps warrant officers are technical specialists who have established their skills in the enlisted grades and who possess the potential to act as a supervisor in that skill in a capacity that is substantially higher than that required for enlisted personnel. Consequently, while the majority of warrant officer selectees do require some additional formal training prior to their first assignment in the fleet as a warrant officer, the training is at an intermediate level where the supervisory skills for the particular technical field are emphasized.
U.S. Marine Corps Homepage
U. S. NAVY
Warrant Officer Definition
Navy chief warrant officers are technical officer specialists who perform duties:
Requiring the expertise and commissioned officer authority to direct the most difficult and exacting technical operation in a given occupational area.
Technically oriented - requiring skills directly related to previous enlisted service and specialized training.
affected by advancement in rank - allows successive tours of a repetitive nature.
Warrant Officer Utilization Philosophy
The functional role of the modern Navy warrant officer
is to provide officer technical expertise at a relatively constant grade level within the officer structure. The duties they perform are limited in scope in relation to other officer categories such as unrestricted line, restricted line, staff or limited duty. That is, the occupational areas of warrant officers do not expand, especially afloat, since their primary duties involve an application of technical and leadership skills versus primarily management functions. As a result, the Navy warrant officer becomes more proficient and valuable with each succeeding assignment. Because warrant officers do not "promote away," they are able to remain close to their technical field. Assignment to duties of a repetitive nature ensure that they will continue to grow in experience, knowledge and value to the Navy as they progress through the warrant officer ranks.
The Navy expects its warrant officers to
"hit the deck running," taking total charge of their area of expertise or responsibility as division officers, department heads, officers-in-charge and, in some cases, the commanding officer, depending on the size of the organization and the complexity of the operations. For these reasons, only senior Navy petty officers (grade E7 and above) may apply for the Navy's warrant officer program.
Navy warrant officers are a special category of officers.
They are not considered "junior officers." Although junior in pay grade, Navy warrants have a minimum of 13 and an average of 17 years enlisted service prior to commissioning. The wealth of technical and leadership experience they bring to the officer corps allows them to work closely with, and fully understand, the requirements of enlisted technicians in their charge. Warrant officers "bridge the gap" between the enlisted technician and the non-technical, generalist commissioned officers, thereby improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization.
At sea, the Navy relies heavily on its warrant officers
to supervise the maintenance and repair of all types of equipment, from the very old to state of the art electronic equipment during extended deployments.
In addition to providing technical and managerial skills,
warrant officers perform a vital function in supporting communications at all levels within the chain of command. Many of the Navy war fighting platforms are extremely complex and operate independent of fleet or base support activities for extended periods of time. Drawing on their extensive technically oriented enlisted experience, warrant officers have proven most effective in providing advice to on-site non-technically oriented unit commanders, providing technical decision making information and, in many cases, direct mission support.
Requirements Determination Process
Navy officer requirements can be separated into three main categories -- combat essential, combat and other support, and individuals account. "Combat essential" is defined as those operational combat and shore elements necessary to execute the maritime strategy. "Combat and other support" comprises the necessary rear support for the combat essential manpower requirements analysts before manpower authorization changes are approved and programmed. Those requests than can not be supported by valid requirements and/or from a program execution standpoint are denied and not included in the program budget submits to Office of the Secretary of Defense and Congress.
for the supervision of manual or technical skills at the highest level of supervisory responsibility shall normally be classified as warrant officer billets. The actual employment of warrant officers is somewhat constrained by billet and personnel assignment policy. There is a warrant officer/E8/E9 functional relationship which must be taken into account in assigning warrant officer billets to preclude excessive layering of officer and enlisted technical/managerial talent. These include:
Where an E8/E9 is assigned directly subordinate to a warrant officer.
Where a Warrant Officer is assigned directly subordinate to an Ensign or Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Limited Duty Officer (LDO).
Where a single E8 is assigned directly subordinate to an E9, unless separate areas of responsibility are identified for each.
Warrant Officer Occupations
The majority of warrant officer billets
are at the division officer level, Navy warrant officers also service as Commanding Officers, Executive Officers, Officers-In-Charge, department heads, instructors, and as technical advisors on major staffs, ashore and afloat. Warrant officers may also be assigned any primary or additional duty deemed necessary by the commanding officer to accomplish the immediate mission of the unit. (See also
Navy to try CWO-to-Pilot Program below.)
There are currently 30 separate CWO designators
in five separate categories. CWO in the surface, submarine, aviation and general designators are line officers and CWO in the staff designators are staff officers. In virtually all cases, Navy warrant officers perform duties within their technical specialties.
Some examples of CWO billets are:
- First Lieutenant, Ship Boatswain, Beachmasters, Port Services and Docking Officer.
- Ships Navigator, Ocean Systems Operations Officer, TAC Data Systems/Combat Information Officer, SATCOM Officer.
- Shipboard Engineer and Assistant, Repair Officer, Inspection Team member.
- Weapons Safety Officer, Fire Control and Weapons Systems Maintenance and Repair, Special Weapons Assembly and Technical Repair.
Special Warfare Techs/Explosive Ordnance Disposal
- SEAL, EOD Officer.
- Shipboard Electronics Material Maintenance, Avionics, Inspector-Combat Systems.
- Air Boatswain, Catapult and Arresting Gear, Aircraft Refueling, Aircraft Crash/Salvage, Flight Deck Supervisor, Flight Crew. (See also
Navy to try CWO-to-Pilot Program below.)
- Naval Reactors Operational and Maintenance, Radiological Controls, Quality Assurance.
- Admin/Legal/Education/Ops Coordinator (Attaché Technician), ADP Systems Maintenance.
- Research/Analysis, Operational Intel Interpreter, Image Systems Management, Photo Intel Officer, CRYPTO, Special Agent (NIS).
- Tech Supply, Disbursing, Food Service, Civil Engineering, SEABEE Operations Officer.
Warrant officers may also be assigned
to analyze Maintenance, Material, and Management (3M) Data; serve as special project officers in their area of expertise; and may be utilized as personal excellence counselors, recruiters, or recruit company commanders.
In October 2002
the Navy Secretary Authorized the Grade of CWO5 beginning in Fiscal Year 2004
- The Navy 2004 Promotion Selection Board included CWO4 selection for CWO5. Over a five year period some 84-CWO5 billets (5% authorized by WOMA) of the Navy Warrant Officer Corps may serve in the grade of CWO5.
In January 2006 the Navy announced
a pilot program that will place 30 selected Chief Warrant Officers in aircraft cockpits as pilots and naval flight officers. The intent is to create flying specialists unencumbered by the traditional career paths of the unrestricted line officer community. The concept is to replace a percentage of the pilots and NFOs in squadrons that have large junior officer aviator populations and corresponding low department head opportunity with Chief Warrant Officers who can return to these squadrons again and again and perform the same duties they did before, with no career penalty. Targeted communities include Patrol (VP), Electronic Attack (VQ(P) and VQ(T)) and the HSC and HSL helicopter communities. Targeted enlisted candidates include those between
pay grades E-5 and E-7 and also young enough to be commissioned by their 27th birthday (29 for NFOs; they must also possess an associate's degree or higher, meet aviation physical qualifications, pass Aviation Standard Battery Test minimums and be eligible for a secret security clearance. Thirty Sailors will be selected for the pilot program, commissioned as CWO2 prior to LDO/CWO indoctrination, and subsequently undergo flight training. Once winged, program CWOs will incur an 8-year minimum service requirement for pilots (6 years for NFOs) and complete traditional sea/shore rotations between operational units and shore-based aviation production sources. The newly-winged aviators will receive Fleet Replacement Squadron training and then report to the fleet.
U.S. Navy Homepage
Limited Duty Officer/Chief Warrant Officer Community Page
History of Warrant Officers in the U. S. Navy
Specialty Insignia - LDO and Warrant
Navy Flying Chief Warrant Officers (Unofficial)
In October 2004,
Department of Health and Human Services awarded a contract to support the development of a Public Health Service Warrant Officer program
U. S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps
(Many files throughout this site are a PDF files -
free reader available for download.)
Much of the information on the warrant officer programs of the other services was derived from the Defense Department Report to Congress on Warrant Officer Management Act (WOMA) 30 November 1989. Some items and events have been added based on official Uniformed Services, Defense Department News Releases, and web research.
This is a living document which is updated as research progresses and events transpire.
Comments and additional historical data may be sent by email